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The Development of the MATRRESS; A Multidimensional Scale of Manipulation Tactics in Romantic Relationships
Pavlos Ioannidis 1Department of Clinical Psychology Research, Greek Institute of Clinical Psychology (E. CLI. PSY.), Ioanninon 7, Agios Dimitrios, Athens-Greece Corresponding Author: pavlosioannnidis[at]gmail.com
Abstract: The MATRRESS, a MAnipulation Tactics in Romantic RElationships Scale was designed by 18 mental health professionals to facilitate the scientific exploration of the properties of manipulation in couples. In study 1, a PCA on a sample of 610 respondents revealed an 8-factor structure of eight distinct manipulation tactics which was cross-validated with CFA on a second sample of 609 participants. A bi-factor model produced the best fit to the data which consisted of a composite factor (General Manipulation) and 8 distinct reliable manipulation tactics (Threats of Abandonment, Induction to Guilt, Self-harm Threats, Induction to Jealousy, Coercive Distance / Silent Treatment, Dividing and Conquering, Use of Charm and Deflation of Self-esteem). In study 2, 462 participants completed the MATRRESS as well as other scales related to manipulation (Machiavellianism, Emotional Manipulation and Psychopathy) and adequate convergent validity was established as well as satisfactory test-retest reliability. Overall, it appears that the MATRRESS has excellent internal consistency (α=.95), and correlates significantly to Machiavellianism (r=.66), Emotional Manipulation (r=.73) and Psychopathy (r=.49). As a reliable and valid scale it has numerous potential applications in social, psychological and clinical research as a useful tool to assess manipulation tactics in romantic relationships.